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Desarrollo incluyente

Los documentos de trabajo se derivan de distintas iniciativas de la Dirección Regional para América Latina y el Caribe, y principalmente, de los proyectos coordinados por el Área de Reducción de la Pobreza, ODM’s y Desarrollo Humano. Esta iniciativa, denominada Investigación para la Política Pública, aborda temas de trascendencia para la región y pretende contribuir al debate público en las áreas de ODM’s y pobreza, desarrollo incluyente y desarrollo humano.

2013

ID_01_2013

"Deconstructing the Decline in Inequality in Latin America" Nora Lustig, Luis F. Lopez-Calva and Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez

Inequality in Latin America unambiguously declined in the 2000s. Available evidence suggests that the skill premium drives the decline in hourly labor income inequality. The causes behind this have not been unambiguously established. Some studies find that returns fell because of an increase in the supply of workers with more educational attainment; others, because of a shift in demand away from skilled-labor.

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2012

ID-01-2012

"Declining Inequality in Latin America in the 2000s: The Cases of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico" Nora Lustig, Luis F. Lopez-Calva y Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez

Between 2000 and 2010, the Gini coefficient declined in 13 of 17 Latin American countries. The decline was statistically significant and robust to changes in the time interval, inequality measures and data sources. In-depth country studies for Argentina, Brazil and Mexico suggest two main phenomena underlie this trend: a fall in the premium to skilled labor and more progressive government transfers.

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2010

ID-03-2010

"Down and Out or Up and In? In Search of Latin America’s Elusive Middle Class" Guillermo Cruces, Luis Felipe López-Calva y Diego Battiston

This paper discusses the existing empirical implementations of the concept of middle class in the applied literature, and derives a definition based on sound principles from distributional analysis.

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ID-02-2010

"Bigger… but Stronger? The Middle Class in Chile and Mexico in the Last Decade" Dagmar Hertova, Luis Felipe López-Calva y Eduardo Ortiz Juárez

The analysis of the middle class emerges as a relevant issue given the strong influence that this social group has on societies and also on the economic performance. The aim of this document is to empirically contrast different ways of measuring the middle class, from purely statistical approaches to context-relative and absolute-standard measures, and to vulnerability analysis.

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ID-01-2010

"Banca Doméstica y Banca Extranjera en América Latina: ¿Roles Diferentes en la Estabilidad Financiera y el Crecimiento Económico?" Liliana Rojas-Suarez

Una de las características que distingue a América Latina del resto del mundo en vías de desarrollo es el alto grado de apertura financiera que ha alcanzado en las últimas dos décadas y que se ha caracterizado por la drástica reducción (o eliminación, en algunos países) de restricciones a los flujos internacionales de capital.

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2009

ID-16-2009

"The Dynamics of Inequality in the Best and Worst of Times, Bolivia 1997-2007" George Gray Molina y Ernesto Yañez

This paper focuses on the dynamics of inequality in Bolivia between 1997 and 2007. During this period, moderate poverty declined by 3 percentage points (from 63% to 60%) and extreme poverty declined half a percentage point (from 38% to 37%). Despite the modest improvement, the absolute number of the poor increased by 970,000, at an average rate of about 100,000 new poor every year.

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ID-15-2009

"Cambios en la desigualdad del ingreso en América Latina. Contribución de sus principales determinantes. (1995-2006)" CEDLAS

En general, las economías de América Latina se han caracterizado por presentar altos niveles de desigualdad del ingreso respecto a otros países. No obstante, si bien tanto los niveles como las trayectorias de la desigualdad entre los países latinoamericanos han sido dispares, desde principios de 2000 han asistido a un proceso de reducción de la desigualdad.

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ID-14-2009

"Markets, the State and the Dynamics of Inequality: Brazil´s Case Study" Ricardo Barros, Mirela de Carvalho, Samuel Franco y Rosane Mendonça

In this study we seek to estimate the contribution of key aspects of Brazilian public policy and labor market performance in reducing income inequality. We focus on four main aspects: 1) government transfers, 2) earnings differentials per educational level, 3) spatial and sector labor market integration, and 4) minimum wage.

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ID-13-2009

"Growth and Equity in the Dominican Republic: The Role of the Market and the State in an Economy with Unequal Growing Prosperity" Omar S. Arias y Rolando M. Guzmán

The Dominican Republic has experienced one of the strongest growth performances of the last two decades in the LAC region. However, poverty and inequality have not declined, and the growing prosperity has been shared unevenly among the population. Income inequality remained unchanged over the last 7 years at the average for the countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.

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ID-12-2009

"Inequality in Post-Structural Reform Peru: The Role of Market and Policy Forces" Miguel Jaramillo y Jaime Saavedra

In this paper, we analyze trends in inequality and characterized them, focusing on the post-structural reform period (1997-2006). Next, we identify the immediate factors influencing these trends, and link them to underlying forces associated with the market, and state policies.

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ID-11-2009

"The Dynamics of Inequality in Spain" José Fernández-Albertos

The paper has two main objectives. The first is to provide a comprehensive picture of the evolution of inequality during the economic expansion of Spain in the second half of the 20th century. The second is to study the determinants of the evolution of inequality over time.

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